Mindblown: a blog about philosophy.

  • Preventing Medical Mistakes

    Medical mistakes continue to be a significant cause of preventable deaths within the United States.  While death is the most tragic outcome, medical mistakes cause other problems such as permanent disabilities, extended hospital stays, longer recoveries, and even additional treatments. Medical Mistakes Medical mistakes and their consequences also add significantly to the overall cost of […]

  • Car Insurance, Your Policy Wording

    This policy booklet gives full details of your cover. You should read it along with your motor proposal confirmation, certificate of motor insurance and schedule. Please keep all your documents in a safe place. Your policy is made up of: the motor proposal confirmation this policy booklet from pages 5 to 29 the certificate of […]

  • Overview of real-time PCR components

    This section provides an overview of the major reaction components and parameters involved in real-time PCR experiments. A more detailed discussion of specific components like reporter dyes, passive reference dyes, and uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) is provided in subsequent sections of this handbook. DNA polymerase PCR performance is often related to the thermostable DNA polymerase, […]

  • HIV Treatment

    Although global commitment to control the HIV/AIDS pandemic has increased significantly in recent years, the virus continues to spread with alarming and increasing speed. By the end of 2005, an estimated 40 million people worldwide were living with HIV infection or disease, a notable rise from the 35 million infected with HIV in 2001 (UNAIDS […]

  • HIV Genotype and Phenotype Testing

    Development of drug resistance to antiretroviral therapy HIV Genotype and Phenotype Testing- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replicates rapidly, particularly in response to antiretroviral (ARV) therapies. These replications are a result of substitutions in the viral protease, reverse transcriptase, or integrase enzymes which are targeted by various ARV drugs that can lead to drug-resistant mutations (quasi […]

  • Illumina Sequencing

    In the mid-1990s, scientists at Cambridge, Shankar Balasubramanian and David Klenerman, developed methods to produce high-quality reads of much greater data size at a reduced cost. In this method single DNA molecules are attached to a flat surface, amplified in situ, and sequenced using fluorescent reversible terminator deoxyribonucleotides. The florescent signals generated during the reaction […]

  • Direct ELISA – Antigen Coating, Blocking, Data Analysis

    Direct ELISA – This is a general protocol in which antigen coating and blocking may not be required if the wells from the manufacturer have been pre-adsorbed with the antigen. 1. Antigen Coating Dilute purified antigens to a final concentration of 1-10 μg/ml in bicarbonate/carbonate antigen-coating buffer (100 mM NaHCO3 in deionized water; pH adjusted […]

  • ELISA: Indirect, Blocking, Capture Format and Components

    Sensitive and reproducible technologies available. These assays are rapid, simple to perform, and easily automated. IDEXX introduced the first commercial poultry ELISA for infectious bursal disease (IBD) in 1985 and the first commercial livestock ELISA for Aujeszky’s disease/pseudorabies in 1986, enhancing the way laboratories test production animals. As with any assay, the reproducibility and reliability […]

  • ELISA Equipment, Maintenance and Calibration

    Equipment for ELISA testing is widely available. Readers, washers, and pipettes are available as manual or automated systems. Some of the factors affecting equipment selection are the number and types of tests and samples, technical training of staff, and financial considerations. Below is a brief outline of some equipment available for performing ELISA testing. Pipettes […]


    ELISA FAQs The ELISA protocols do not recommend shaking during incubations. Have you tested shaking and decided against it or is it unnecessary? We tested our protocols with and without shaking during incubations and determined that there is no difference between the two approaches. Therefore, we believe that shaking is not necessary. Is your ELISA […]

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